Sunday, May 24, 2020

Research Study Proposal - Part Iv Target Population...

Research Study Proposal – Part IV: Target Population Selection †¢ Rationale for identified target population The target population refers to the group(s) that the proposed study is designed and intended to realistically serve. The application of the guidelines is aimed at enhancing the credibility of the program establishment, and for which effective responses are not currently provided. Research and experience have indicated that 68% of nearly 3.8 million retail establishments in the U.S. believe that they are overburdened without strategic process guideline (National Retail Federation (NRF). (2016). Hence, a strategic process guideline for establishing assisted living program will serve well the intended proprietors in this category. I aim at providing strategic information process guidelines for establishing assisted living program, the target population includes proprietors who desire to establish assisted living for low to high levels of care. Moderate care level programs accepts residents who require a moderate level of care. High level of care program accepts residents who require comprehensive support for any number of daily activities. (State of Maryland (Comar, 2013). Moreover, those who desire to establish an assisted living program to improve the quality of the lives of the citizens will find the strategic process information guideline extremely helpful and reduce the level of overwhelming frustration that accompanies lack of clearly delineatedShow MoreRelatedSample Research Paper1642 Words   |  7 PagesThe main purpose of a research proposal is to show that the problem you propose to investigate is significant enough to warrant the investigation, the method you plan to use is suitable a nd feasible, and the results are likely to prove fruitful and will make an original contribution. In short, what you are answering is will it work? A provisional way of presenting all the parameters of research in logical order is known as proposal-writing stage. Irrespective of some other motives such as financialRead MoreHigh Alert Medication Errors With Independent Double Checks Essay1386 Words   |  6 PagesDecreasing High Alert Medication Errors With Independent Double Checks High alert medications and independent double checks should go hand-in-hand in minimizing medication errors in acute care settings. This study will focus on an experimental approach using convenient sampling and random selection of nurses to compare whether or not an educational intervention including independent double checks before high alert medication administration will decrease the amount of errors made by nurses in an acuteRead MoreMcdonald s Research Proposal : Marketing Research2005 Words   |  9 Pages McDonald’s Research Proposal For MKT202 – Marketing Research Essentials Designed by: Hoang Nam Duong (Peter) – 109195 Muhamad Ihsan Hizbullah (Buchan) – 124950 Kabilen Chandrasegaran – 12981 Tram Nguen – 122429 Gwo-Horng Lien (Steve) – 121835 Contents I. Statement of the Research Objectives 2 II. Study Design 2 III. Areas of Questioning 4 IV. Data Analysis 5 V. Limitations 6 VI. Personnel Involved 7 VII. Specifications and Assumptions 7 VIII. Services 7 IX. References 9 Read MoreFactors Affecting Supplier Selection in Procurement Process Among International Ngos: Case of Un Agencies in Kenya11125 Words   |  45 PagesAFFECTING SUPPLIER SELECTION IN PROCUREMENT PROCESS AMONG INTERNATIONAL NGOs: CASE OF UN AGENCIES IN KENYA BY OTIENO SAMUEL NAVAKA A RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF DIPLOMA IN PURCHASING AND SUPPLIES MANAGEMENT TO THE KENYA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT. AUGUST 2013 DECLARATION Declaration by the Student This research proposal is my original work and has never been presented before to any other examination body. No part of this workRead MoreHow to Write a Proposel to a Marketing Firm for Advertising1409 Words   |  6 Pagescustomers with its uniqueness. With time to time improvement of its varieties of products also warm services, Bing! Coffee has its own Facebook page, as a one of direct marketing in social network and has up to 5,659 fans that liked the page of the populations mostly in East Malaysia, Kuching in particular. As a local brand, however Bing! Coffee seems to have more popularity and improvement from time to time compared to some local coffee house because the raw materials is imported for obtaining the bestRead MoreResearch Proposal3004 Words   |  13 PagesCAMPUS SCHOOL BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS FACTORS THAT HAVE LED INTO THE SLOW GROWTH OF BUSINESS ESTABLISHMENTS IN KERICHO: A CASE STUDY OF MUTAI COMPANY BETT JOANNE CHEPKIRUI BBM/1529/09 A research proposal submitted in partial fulfillment of the award of bachelor of business management. Presented to Dr.Rose Omondi, DECLARATION I declare that this research proposal is my original work in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree in bachelors of business management and has not beenRead MoreElectronic Banking And Service Delivery2765 Words   |  12 PagesPersonal Identification Numbers PLCC Pearson Linear Correlation Coefficient SPSS Statistical Package For Social Science IT Information Technology THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE Background of the Study Electronic saving money is one of the first things that ring a bell when one considers the eventual fate of managing an account. It incorporates mechanized teller machines (ATMs), computerized call focuses, advanced money, Internet managing an accountRead MoreSampling and Research8917 Words   |  36 Pagesbuilding blocks of research GOOD Research entails Clear research objectives Sound research design Contain sufficient detail to allow another researcher to repeat the research Data should reveal its significance and use appropriate methods of analysis Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data Should include the flaws in the design and their impact upon findings A good researcher reputation gains more respect and reliable findings The Scientific Research Method: EncounterRead MoreWhat Are the Effects of Poor Communication in a Project?3402 Words   |  14 PagesManagement Project Research IV Lecturer: L. Jowah RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PROPOSAL TABLE OF CONTENTS Hypothesis - The matrix management structure hinders the project manager when executing a project. 1 Research Question 1 Topic 1 KEY WORDS 1 CONCEPT DEFINITIONS 1 2 CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM ORIENTATION 2 1.1 INTRODUCTION 2 1.2 BACKGROUND TO STUDY 3 1.3 PROBLEM FORMULATION 4 1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 5 1.4.1 Primary objective 5 1.4.2 Theoretical objectives of the study 5 1.4.3 EmpiricalRead MoreCapstone Project15365 Words   |  62 PagesThe Student Guide to the MSA Capstone Project Part 1: The Research Proposal and the Research Project Central Michigan University August 2012 Contents What is the MSA 699 Project? ........................................................................................................ 4 Overview of the MSA 699 Project................................................................................................... 5 Plagiarism and Ethics ..........................................

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Essay on Cannabis Legalization - 1240 Words

Cannabis Legalization Discuss: â€Å"Cannabis is no more harmful than tobacco or alcohol and should, therefore, be legalised.† There has recently been much debate in the media about the decriminalisation of cannabis, both for recreational and medicinal use. This topic has proved controversial especially in political circles. Drawing on evidence from recent press reports, research on the web and recent publications, this essay will assess the evidence of how harmful cannabis really is. In 1971 Cannabis was reclassified by parliament and became a schedule 1 drug. This means that it was viewed as having no medicinal value. In 2002, Cannabis was reclassified again as a Class C drug meaning that it is seen as less harmful in comparison to†¦show more content†¦He argues that cannabis use is no more dangerous than alcohol and tobacco, suggesting that the legal effects can have further far-reaching consequences on users if they are caught. He explains that, â€Å"People who are prosecuted for possession of cannabis may have their livelihoods destroyed for the use of a compound which has less adverse consequences than alcohol and tobacco.† However, there are many critical responses to these views. Studies such those published by the BMJ demonstrate that there are two main problems with long-term cannabis use. One problem is that cannabis usage over time damages mental health and has negative physical consequences much like those of nicotine. On the other side of the coin cannabis use can have indirect consequences in terms of the wider population. The British Medical Journal (1996) featured an article suggesting that women had a five fold increase in comparison with men in reporting of depressive episodes after smoking cannabis. This suggests that gender has an effect on reactions to cannabis. It also suggests that there may be differences in terms of reporting the effects of cannabis based on gender, with men perhaps being less keen to report any negative reactions due to stereotypes based on gender. Additionally episodes of psychosis have also been related to cannabis which indicates that cannabis may not be as harmless as some suggest. A recent GuardianShow MoreRelatedThe Legalization Of The Cannabis Cure Essay1287 Words   |  6 Pages The Cannabis Cure Cannabis is a huge economic development in America that has changed to reach people in need of its benefits. In the hands of smart business owners cultivation is apart of an extravagant life cycle of creation. Farmers are now harvesting marijuana yields in 9 U.S. states and pave they way for dispensary pop ups in the years ahead. Alaska, California, Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington, The District of Colombia, and Florida have fully legalizedRead MoreThe Legalization Of Marijuana And Cannabis Programs854 Words   |  4 PagesSince that time 22 states, the district of Columbia and Guam have enacted similar laws (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2015). Of the 23 States, the District of Columbia and Guam now allow for comprehensive public medical marijuana and cannabis programs (National Conference of state legislatures, 2015). Recently, there have been 17 states who have approved efforts to allow use of ‘low’ THC, high cann abinoid products for medical reasons in limited situations or as a legal defense (NationalRead MoreAdvantages And Disadvantages Of Cannabis Legalization1614 Words   |  7 PagesTitle Page Assess the advantages and disadvantages of Cannabis Legalization in Australia Contents Title Page 1 Introduction: 3 Cannabis dugs: 3 Use of Marijuana in Australia: 4 Advantages of Cannabis legalization in Australia: 5 Disadvantages of Cannabis legalization in Australia: 5 Conclusion: 7 References: 8 Introduction: Currently drug abuse is the issue that has plagued almost all the societies in the world. This problem poses serious threat to the life of peopleRead MoreCannabis Legalization887 Words   |  4 PagesGood News Ontarians, legalized cannabis stores are coming your way by 2018! In Canada, cannabis control has remained a highly debated topic. In 2014, the CAMH Monitor assessed public opinion on topics related to cannabis control from a sample of 2000 participants . Results indicate that the majority of adults in Ontario support the shift in cannabis reform from the prohibitionist method for the control of recreational use . Additionally, the main method of reform supported is a state regulatedRead MoreLegalization Of Cannabis1560 Words   |  7 Pages On Tuesday, June 27, the City of Blythe held a commercial cannabis forum to give direction to the city manager on how they wish to proceed with cannabis developers opening up dispensaries in Blythe, while also providing extensive feedback for staff to make the final re-adjustments to the permit application procedures and forms. As an economic development for the City of Blythe to gain revenue by regulating and taxing medical and recreational marijuana, the permit process is still scheduledRead MoreThe Legalization Of Marijuana ( Cannabis )2609 Words   |  11 Pagesaggressively to achieve a therapeutic outcome. Therefore, it only makes sense to adventure out in the hopes of finding a more effective cancer treatment. Marijuana is a controversial topic in the news today, with many people for the legalization of medicinal use. Marijuana(cannabis) contains various organic chemical compounds known as cannabinoids. In the past few years, research into the anti-tumorigenic effects of cannabinoids have yielded some breathtaking results. This recent research has shown cannabinoidsRead MoreRegulated Legalization of Cannabis in Germany Essay1664 Words   |  7 PagesLeaving the moral ‘high’ grounds Towards a regulated legalization of cannabis in Germany Introduction At first glance, German drug policy seems quite progressive: Drug abuse is treated as a health and social issue and there is a strong focus on prevention through education. However, Germany is still a staunch supporter of the current prohibition regime and is committed to the aim of a â€Å"drug free society†. As such, tackling the supply side of the drug trade is still an important pillar of GermanRead MoreUnited States Drug Policy1302 Words   |  6 Pageseven legalize, marijuana use for medical perposes. In fact, two states, Washington and Colorado, have legalized the recreational use of marijuana for anybody over the age of twenty-one since 2012. (Hawken, Caulkins, Kilmer, and Kleiman 2013) The legalization and regulation of marijuana would greatly minimize crime and solve many problems including overcrowding of jails and prison, lowering the tax dollars that people need to pay in order to support these incarcerated criminals, and regulating the economyRead MoreShould Cannabis Be Legalised in the Uk?1141 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Cannabis should be legalised.† To a large extent I agree with this statement; cannabis should be legalised. I do feel, that legalizing cannabis would help resolve many of our country’s problems and difficulties, for example street-crime or burglary indirectly related to drugs. However I also feel that it could cause other types of problems if people don’t understand the effects of it. To many people, they see cannabis as a dangerous and damaging drug, however the effects of cannabis are sometimesRead MoreLegalization of medical marijuana at the federal law Essay1653 Words   |  7 Pageswhy not legalize it? The only thing holding people back is the federal law. Medical marijuana should be legalized at the federal law for medical purposes because many people already support the legalization of medical marijuana. (Brooks, 2014). Explains that 51 percent of Minnesotans support legalization for medicinal uses, while 41 percent oppose. There is a story on an individual that used marijuana and helped him out with his condition. His name was Patrick McClellan and medical marijuana helped

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

History And Systems Of Psychology - 1795 Words

History and Systems of Psychology is a course requirement offered to Psychology majors and minors. This course is used to provide majors and minors with the foundation and the evolution of the field of psychology. Within this class, many scholars of discussed. Two scholars that stood out to me in this course would be John Watson and Max Wertheimer. These two particular scholars are responsible for two of the most influential and famous schools of thought, behaviorism and Gestalt psychology. These two schools of thought are responsible for changing the field of psychology and introducing the field to new theories and ways of thinking. Although the two schools of thought are similar in being influential but they are different in many ways. The two schools of thought are even said to be contradictory of one another and one is even said to be the cause of the fading out of the other. John Watson was born January 9, 1878 and he died September 25, 1958. He grew up in South Carolina (Cherry, 2014). John Watson grew up in a poor and dysfunctional family. His mother was Christian and she, therefore, wanted to raise him to be Christian. His father, on the other hand, was a bad man. He did drugs and got in trouble. In Watson’s teenage years, he had an affair and left his family. Although Watson’s mother’s intentions were to raise him to be a good Christian man, Watson ended up being a very violent kid. Watson even found himself in trouble with the law, just as his dad did. Later inShow MoreRelatedHistory And Systems Of Psychology3029 Words   |  13 Pages SOUTHWESTERN ASSEMBLIES OF GOD UNIVERSITY History and Systems of Psychology Psy 4113.00 Instructor: Dr. John Savell History and Systems of Psychology School of Thought Research Paper STUDENT DATA: Name Lauren Frost E-mail: Phone: (318)372-3825 Semester: Fall 2014 Date: October 8, 2014 Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis is the belief that we are blissfully unaware of circumstances that dictate ones emotions and behavior. Psychoanalytic school of thought looksRead MoreHistory of Modern Psychology836 Words   |  4 PagesA History of Modern Psychology Franklyn Rivas UOPX History and Systems in Psychology 310 Lillian Fillpot May 03, 2011 A History of Modern Psychology Before psychology officially became a science, many great intellectuals of previous centuries had contributed to the philosophy behind psychology. This philosophy can be trace back to the times of the Greeks, middle ages, and the renaissance period. However, the link between philosophy and modern psychology became possible in the late 18thRead MoreThe Important Effects of Theories, Systems, and Paradigms on Psychology543 Words   |  3 Pages Psychology is the study of the way people think and behave. The field of psychology has a number of subdisciplines devoted to the study of the different levels and contexts of human thought and behavior that includes theories, systems, and paradigms. Theories, systems, and paradigms have had an important effect on psychology. A theory is a plausible or scientifically acceptable general principle or body of principles offered to explain phenomena. A theory can also be explained as an abstractRead MoreKurt Wundt s Theory Of Psychology966 Words   |  4 PagesPsychology has evolved throughout the years, and continues to do so. Pioneers in the field created movements that were sometimes embraced, sometimes not. Ideas were challenged and each successive theory either opposed or built on what had come before. The science of psychology has come a long way from its humble roots in philosophy and physiology, becoming a vast and complex discipline with many subfields. Theories and schools of thought gave way to opposing views and new schools. Wilhelm WundtRead MoreThe Theory Of Cognitive Psychology947 Words   |  4 Pageshow information is stored and recalled was thought not so widely followed through until the concept of cognitive psychology came along. Cognitive Psychology is broadly known as the study to understand the deep complexity of processing and recalling information which can determine our behaviors and feelings. There are three main focuses which contribute to the study of cognitive psychology. The first is a memory which can be looked at as the storage of information, both immediately and stored throughoutRead MorePsychotherapy is the Practice of Psychology, by Lee Sechrest and Bradley Smith871 Words   |  4 Pagesin their article â€Å"Psychotherapy is the Practice of Psychology,† present a compelling argument for the complete integration of the aspects of theory, research, and practice of psychotherapy into the discipline of psychology. The authors define integration as the â€Å"[unification ] of a body of knowledge in systematic way that is coherent and heuristic† (Sechrest Smith, 2012, p. 170). The article claims full integration of psychotherapy into psychology would create a discipline rooted in science, groundedRead MoreInvestigating The Expository Qualification And The Debate Between The Personalistic And Naturalistic Position1574 Words   |  7 PagesThe objective of this task is to investigate the expository qualification and the debate between the Personalistic and Naturalistic position in the originations of experimental history in psychological research, it likewise clarified the correlation between the two ideas and how the zeitgeist secured the associations with each of these ideas. Zeitgeist portrays as the â€Å"spirit of the time† and amid the seventeenth and nineteenth hundreds of years. On the occasion of the recorded advancement of exploratoryRead MoreHistory of Psychology753 Words   |  4 PagesHistory of Psychology History of Psychology Paper Shirley L Nieves October 21, 2013 PSY/310 Prof. Kelle Daniels The roots of psychology date back to Egypt and the Egyptian mystery system. Psychology has evolved from philosophy, medicine, theology, and science. Psychology evolved out of coalescence of natural science, and also the branch of philosophy which is known as epistemology, which is also known in the theory of knowledgeRead MoreThe Discovery Of A New Science1634 Words   |  7 Pages The Discovery of a New Science A Brief History Physiology has piqued human curiosity for thousands of years. In the early centuries, examination and dissection of the human body was a taboo practice and consequently became mired due to ethical or religious concerns. Scientist had no choice but to undertake inconceivable acts, such as grave robbery in the name of learning and educating. They carried out dissections in secrecy. Human physical and mental health practices have greatly benefittedRead MorePsycology Reflective Essay1296 Words   |  6 PagesPsychology 445 Reflective Essay This class has not only enabled me to become a better student, but also a more productive adult in various ways. Initially, I came into your class ecstatic because I knew the journey I would embark would be an exciting one; however, I encountered challenges throughout the course although learning new psychological methods is enthusing to me. I learned about the origin of psychology and the evolution of modern psychology. In further detail, I will discuss how

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Guns Germs and Steel free essay sample

Guns, Germs, And Steel Author: Jared Diamond 1. Write a short half a page biography of the author; include information about his areas of research, books written, and prizes awarded. Jared Mason Diamond was born on 10 September 1937 in Boston, Massachusetts. He earned an A. B degree from Harvard University in 1958 and a Ph. D. in physiology from Cambridge University in 1961. Diamond was a Junior Fellow at Harvard from 1962 to 1966, at which point he became a professor of physiology at the UCLA Medical School. By 1997 he had transferred to the UCLA Department of Geography, where he has centered biogeography and human society. Jared field experiences include twenty-two trips to New Guinea and neighboring islands to study ecology and evolution of birds. He has rediscovered of New Guineas long-lost golden fronted bowerbird; and other field projects in North America, South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. As a environmentalist he arranged an absolute plan, almost all of which was forced for Indonesian New Guineas national park system. We will write a custom essay sample on Guns Germs and Steel or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Jared was also taking on a lot of projects for the Indonesian government World wildfire fund. He is a founding member of the board of the Society of Conservation Biology and a member of the board of directors of World Wildlife Fun. Jared Diamond has won numerous prizes for his work. Some of Diamonds awards are he National Medal of Science, the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement, Japans Cosmos Prize, a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship and the Lewis Thomas Prize honoring the Scientist as Poet, presented by Rockefeller University. 2. Preface: The author suggests that the roots of western Eurasian dominance in the modern world lie in what? Why has he chosen to write this book in this style and manner? The author suggests the roots of Western Eurasian dominance in the modern world lie in the preliterate past before 3,000 B. C. The dominance of western Eurasian societies themselves and of the societies that they create on other countries. In the modern world they lie in capitalism, mercantilism, scientific inquiry, technology, and nasty germs that killed peoples when they came in contact with the Western Eurasians. Diamond chose to write this book in this style and manner to provide in depth view of history over the past 13,000 years about everybody. He sets out to answer the question motivating this book which is â€Å"Why did history unfold differently on different continents†. 3. Prologue: According to the author, why did humans’ development proceed at different rates on different continents? What is his personal view on civilized and progressive societies versus hunter-gathers societies? The human’s development proceeded at different rates on different continents for many reasons. The main reason is geographical areas. For example in New Guinea there are not a lot of crops you can plant. One of their main resources is a tree that they have to cut down versus the resources available in North America, where there are lots of crops (ie. , wheat corn and cotton). This alone gives North America huge advantage over New Guinea. His personal view on civilized and progressive societies versus hunter-gathers societies is that he does not think that civilized progressive societies are preferable than hunter gathers. The civilized societies’ have longer life spams and medical care however the hunter gathers have shorter life spam and a higher risk of death. But the civilized have not much extended families and friends. 4. Chapter 1: What was the great leap forward? Describe the life of a Cro-Magnon person. What impact did the arrival of humans have on big animals? Provide an example. Which continent had a head start in 11,000 BCE (Before Common Era= BC). Why? The Great leap forward consists of the firs proven Major extension of human geographic range since our ancestor’s establishment Eurasia. The great leap forward was about 50,000 years ago. The start of the great leap forward was in East Africa sites with stone tools and jewelry. The great leap forward accompany with a key extension of the range of humans to Australia and New Guinea from 40,000 to 30,000 years ago. Then there were similar events to appear near East and in southern Western Europe. In southern Western Europe is where full of modern skeletons of people who are called Cro-Magnon. The Cro-Magnon had lots of tools and weapons that were found at the sites. Some tools that were found were fishhooks, needles, awls, and engraving tools. The Cro-Magnon had also weapons which were harpoons, spear-throwing, bow and arrows, and the parts of modern weapons. At the sites there were still remains of their houses and sewn clothing can tell us that they survived cold climates. The remains of jewelry and carefully buried skeletons also tell us they had spiritual developments. The Cro-Magnon is best known for their art work such as: cave paintings, statues, and musical instruments. The arrival of humans made a big change for the animals. Most of the animals became extinct because of the humans. The humans killed the animals for food, clothes, and martieal needs. There were at least 10 million hunter gathers so we can imagine how much animals were killed . There was no continent ahead of each other in 11,000 BCE. 11,000 BCE is just before agriculture was discovered. But Continents could have little advantages before agriculture (ie. Africa was ahead because it had been populated with people for longer than any other continent. But the point is that all the continents were equal in 11,000 BCE. It was the growth of agriculture that made the Continents start to depart in following years. 5. Chapter 2: Explain the differences between the Moriori and the Maori. Who conquered whom and why? What lessons can be learned by the pattern of dispersion of the Polynesians? The Moriori were a small confine population that was hunter-Gathers. They were assembled with the simplest technology and weapons; also they were inexperienced at war. They had a weak leadership and organization. However the Maori attackers were from a thick population of farmers chronically engaged in ferocious wars, more advanced technology and weapons, and a good leadership. When the two societies came into contact there was no doubt that the Maori destroyed the Moriori. The Maori conquered the Moriori because they were the warriors, they were ready for fighting. The Moriori were not fighters they wanted to solve all the problems thru communication. The Maori had better weapons and leadership. The Moriori did not have good weapons and had a lack in leadership. Just by that we can tell that the Maori had a better chance of conquering. The lessons that can be learned by yhe pattern of dispersion of the Polynesians are The lesson that Diamond is trying to teach us through the example of the Polynesians is that the physical environment where a group of people settles determines what sort of society they create. He uses the Polynesians to show this because they were one ethnic group with one culture that spread to many different islands with many different physical environments. After the Polynesians dispersed, they developed many different kinds of cultures depending on the physical characteristics of the places where they settled. These ranged from small bands of hunter-gatherers to relatively large chiefdoms like Hawaii or Tonga. 6. Chapter 3: Write a paragraph explain your views on the event of November 16,1532, What strikes you the most about this event? Why did pizarro succeed? 7. Chapter 4: Write a paragraph explains the chart. Do you agree with the author’s conclusion? What advantages are gained by being the first to domesticate animals? The chart is trying to explain to us how the Europeans got possession of Guns, Germs, and Steel and other nearby causes that helped them defeat other oppents (ie,. Incas). In the chart we can see that the Europeans had horses, guns, ships, political organization, and epidemic diseases. But like Diamond says â€Å"we have to understand why the Europeans had these things while the Incas and others did not. † That’s the purpose of the chart because how did the Europeans get a hold of that stuff and the Incas did not. The chart also shows that the Europeans had epidemic diseases because of all the plant and animal species they equipped because because of things like the east-west axis of Eurasia and the consequent ease of species spreading. I do agree with the authors conclusion because it makes sense about how it got there. There’s a lot of advantages to be the first domesticate animals. You were the first to have livestock for a lot of people. It gave you the major source of protein, replacing the wild game. They had the first source of milk, cheese, butter, and yogurt. 8. Chapter 8: Why was the Fertile Crescent predisposed to have such a potent head start in so many areas of development: writing, cities, and empires? What reasons does the author give for cannibalism in New Guinea? The Fertile Crescent predisposed to have a good head start in so many areas of development because there was five advantages. The first one was that western Eurasia has by far the world’s largest zone of Mediterranean climate. As a result, it has a high diversity of wild plant and animal species, higher than in the comparatively tiny Mediterranean zones of southwestern Australia and Chile. The second advantage was that among Mediterranean zones, western Eurasia’s experience the greatest climatic variation from season to season and year to year. The third advantage was is that it provides a wide range of altitudes and topographies within a short distance, ensuring a corresponding variety of environments, hence a high diversity of the wild plants serving as potential ancestors of crops. The Fertile Crescent’s biological diversity over small distances contributed to a fourth advantage—its wealth in ancestors not only of valuable crops but also of domesticated big mammals. A final advantage of early food production in the Fertile Crescent is that it may have faced less competition from the hunter-gatherer lifestyle than that in some other areas, including the western Mediterranean. A reason that the author gives for cannibalism in New Guinea is because of protein starvation. 9. Chapter 9: Identify and define the Ancient Fourteen. What is domestication? Which animals most helped Eurasians? The Ancient Fourteen: 1. Sheep Wild ancestor: the Asiatic mouflon sheep of West and Central Asia. Now World wide 2. Goat. Wild ancestor: the bezoar goat of West Asia. Now worldwide. 3. Cow, alias ox or cattle. Wild ancestor: the now extinct aurochs, formerly distributed over Eurasia and North Africa. Now worldwide. 4. Pig. Wild ancestor: The wild boar, distributed over Eurasia and North Africa. Now world wide. Actually an omnivore (regularly eats both animal and plant food), whereas the other 13 of the Ancient Fourteen are more strictly herbivores. 5. Horse. Wild ancestor: now extinct wild horses of southern Russia; a different subspecies of the same species survived in the wild to modern times as Przewalski’s horse of Mongolia. Now worldwide. Minor 9 6. Arabian (one-humped) camel. Wild ancestor: now extinct, formerly lived in Arabia and adjacent areas. Still largely restricted to Arabia and northern Africa, though feral in Australia. 7. Bactrian (two-humped) camel: Wild ancestor: now extinct, lived in Central Asia. Still largely confined to Central Asia. 8. Llama and alpaca. These appear to be well-differentiated breeds of the same species, rather than different species. Wild ancestor: the guanaco of the Andes. Still largely confined to the Andes, although some are bred as pack animals in North America. 9. Donkey. Wild ancestor: The African wild ass of North Africa and formerly perhaps the adjacent area of Southwest Asia. Originally confined as a domestic animal to North Africa and Western Eurasia, more recently also used elsewhere. 10. Reindeer. Wild ancestor: the reindeer of northern Eurasia. Still largely confined as a domestic animal to that area, though now some are also used in Alaska. 11. Water buffalo. Wild ancestor lives in Southeast Asia. Still used as a domestic animal mainly in that area, though many are also used in Brazil and others have escaped to the wild in Australia and other places. 12. Yak. Wild ancestor: the wild yak of the Himalayas and Tibetan plateau. Still confined as a domestic animal to that area. 13. Bali cattle. Wild ancestor: The banteng (a relative of the aurochs) of Southeast Asia. Still confined as a domestic animal to that area. 14. Mithan. Wild ancestor: the gaur (another relative of the aurochs) of Indian and Burma. Still confined as a domestic animal to that area. Domestication is to covert a plant or animal to a household use or in other words for it to be tame. The animals that most helped the Eurasians are the sheep, goat, cow, pig, and horse, the major five of the ancient fourteen.

Saturday, April 4, 2020

Western Governors University free essay sample

In the upper Colorado River basin, four species of fish have been listed as federally endangered. In 1988, the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program (Program) was created through a distinctive agreement between a suite of entities comprising local, state, and federal agencies, water and power agencies, and environmental and tribal interests (Carlson Muth, 1993; United States Department of the Interior [USDOI], 1987). The Program was established to recover the endangered fishes while allowing for water development to proceed according to federal and state laws. To achieve the recovery goals established by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Program has embarked on a series of recovery plans focused on three primary activities. The combination of these plans is considerably different from other recovery efforts that focus on single species or activity to recover a species. Often times, these singular efforts are not successful, but efforts to focus more on benefiting the overall ecosystem are successful. We will write a custom essay sample on Western Governors University or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The first action that the Program has undertaken is the manipulation of streamflows from reservoirs to more closely mimic historical conditions to which the endangered fishes were accustomed. Secondly, the Program has worked to reduce the negative impacts of competition and predation that nonnative fish species are having on the native fish. Finally in order to sustain and increase endangered fish populations, hatchery-reared fish are being stocked into the river. Research suggests that without flow http://wgu. mindedgeonline. com/content. php? cid=23905 1/12 3/7/2014 Western Governors University : RQBT5: Sample final paper #2 manipulation, non-native fish control, and hatchery stocking the endangered fishes of the Colorado River basin will not be de-listed (recovered). In this paper, I will provide an introduction as to why the four big-river fishes of the Colorado River basin are endangered and information on delisting of a species. RECOVERY OF THE FOUR BIG-RIVER FISHES OF THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN 3 Background/History The Colorado River is one of the single most important bodies of water in the United States. Its life-giving water is the only single reason why the western United States has been able to be settled, farmed, and ultimately developed, giving way to the great metropolises such as Phoenix, Los Angeles, Las Vegas and many others. The Colorado River today supplies more water for consumptive use than any other river in the United States (Carlson Muth. 1989). However, the development of this great resource for mankind has put other species on the brink of extinction. In the history of the Colorado River, there were initially 54 species of fish that were native. Within those 54 species, 83% of those species were endemic (only found in that area) to the Colorado River basin (Carlson Muth, 1989). Four of these species, the big-river species, Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), humpback chub (Gila cypha), and bonytail (Gila elegans), found in both the Upper and Lower Colorado River basin are federally listed as endangered. Endangered species are species that are in imminent danger of becoming extinct. With the advent of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) and the establishment of the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program, efforts were being made to pull these four species once known as trash or coarse fish (Quartarone, 1995) from the chasm of extinction. Recovery of the population of an endangered species is a long process from listing, to implementing recovery actions and finally the downlisting or de-listing of the species, or its partial recovery or removal from the federal list of endangered species. The reasons for the decline of the big-river fishes of the upper Colorado River basin are many and explicably linked to the growth and development of the communities of the western United States. The primary issue that led to the decline of these species RECOVERY OF THE FOUR BIG-RIVER FISHES OF THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN 4 was the regulation of the river through the construction of large mainstem dams (impoundments). The impoundment of the river into reservoirs drastically altered the biological and hydrologic conditions to which these species had evolved. The dams created large, deep reservoirs upstream, that released water for hydropower that was consistently cold, moving fish from areas near the dams as well as negatively affecting native fish reproduction by extending hatching periods, reducing growth, and making native fish larvae (young fish) more susceptible to predation by http://wgu. mindedgeonline. com/content. php? cid=23905 2/12 3/7/2014 Western Governors University : RQBT5: Sample final paper #2 nonnative fish (Bestgen 2008). The dams and their operations also changed the types of fish that were found in the river, as the conditions (temperatures, sediment loads and habitat) changed significantly enough to allow nonnative species that were either purposely planted or accidentally released to establish and thrive in basin. These species include small minnow species (red shiner, fathead minnow, sand shiner, redside shiner) to large predatory sport fish (northern pike, channel catfish, smallmouth bass, walleye). From the smallest to the largest nonnative species, they have the ability to prey upon the native fishes. The smaller species prey upon native fish larvae in backwater habitats as well as competing with them for space and food. The larger species prey upon the adult native fishes, taking away the ability of the species to effectively reproduce and recruit. The four big-river fishes of the Colorado River basin (Colorado pikeminnow, razorback sucker, humpback chub, and bonytail) are jeopardized by large mainstem dams, water diversion and nonnative fish species. The changes in the Colorado River basin have altered the river from a stream that flowed with enough force to carve canyons out of bedrock into a harnessed stream serving the people who live along its length (Ono 1983). RECOVERY OF THE FOUR BIG-RIVER FISHES OF THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN 5 The four big-river species had adapted over millions of years to the difficult conditions imposed upon them by the Colorado River, extremes of streamflows, temperatures, sediment, and geology. Each species is unique and faces individual challenges in recovery. The Colorado pikeminnow is largest of the four big-river fishes and also the top native predator in the system. Once found throughout all of the Colorado River basin, from Wyoming downstream into Mexico, the pikeminnow migrated over 200 miles to and from spawning areas (United States Fish and Wildlife Service [USFWS], 2002a) . Pikeminnow were probably the species most affected by the presence of the dams (Flaming Gorge, Hoover, and Glen Canyon) as their life history is so significantly tied to their spawning migrations. With the dams, not only could they not move to their spawning grounds, but their offspring were washed into sport fish infested reservoirs if the eggs managed to hatch in cold clear waters. Pikeminnow also do not reproduce until they are approximately four years old. Historically, it would not be necessary for pikeminnow to successfully reproduce each year for the species to survive, however, with the changes to the system, now annual reproductive success is critical, and this life history trait is inhibiting that success. Razorback sucker are the most distinct of the four big-river fishes. The razorback gets its name from the distinctive nuchal hump immediately behind its head that serves to help it stay positioned in the flows of the current. Razorback suckers are also one of the two species that have persisted in both the upper and lower basins. Adults grow to a size of three feet (one meter) and have been known to spawn over submerged gravel bars in the river and rocky shoals in lower basin reservoirs (USFWS, 2002b). Razorbacks have been significantly impacted by the http://wgu. mindedgeonline. com/content. php? cid=23905 3/12 3/7/2014 Western Governors University : RQBT5: Sample final paper #2 RECOVERY OF THE FOUR BIG-RIVER FISHES OF THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN 6 introduction of nonnative fishes as they specifically prey upon and compete with larval razorback suckers. Another threat to the razorback is the presence of other closely related suckers (both native and nonnative) that provide the possibility for hybridization. Humpback chub is the other species still found in both the upper and lower basins. As with the razorback sucker, the humpback chub has a prominent nuchal hump, but a hump as opposed to the sharp-edged shape of the razorback suckers ridge. Only six extant populations exist, all found well within deep, swift canyon reaches of main stem and large tributaries of the Colorado River basin (USFWS, 2002c). Bonytail, are arguably the most critically endangered, but least understood of the four fish species. Not listed as endangered until 1980, the bonytail is the only one of the four species to be primarily found only in the lower Colorado River basin once recovery was undertaken. Due to the lateness of their discovery, little is known of their preferred habitats outside of historical references (USFWS, 2002d). They were accorded their name due to the pencil-thin caudal peduncle, an adaptation to dealing with the high streamflows of the basin. The effort to delist the four big-river fish species of the upper Colorado River basin has been led by the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program. The Program has relied upon flow manipulation, nonnative fish control and stocking of hatchery reared fish in their efforts to recovery these species. If these species are to be pulled from the brink of extinction, these are the means that must occur. Flow Manipulation Studies and adaptive management have indicated that flow manipulation is the most critical of the three main efforts that must occur to recover the endangered fish RECOVERY OF THE FOUR BIG-RIVER FISHES OF THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN 7 species in the upper Colorado River basin because water drives everything as it relates to fish. While the most important, flow manipulation is also the most difficult due to the number of laws affecting water rights and deliveries. The Colorado River Compact of 1922 is one of the most significant of those, detailing how water is divided between the upper and lower Colorado River basin and between the various states. Water is further divided between agriculture, municipal, and energy interests. The needs of the native fishes ultimately were an afterthought to the needs of the people. When it comes to the necessary manipulation of flows, this can create significant issues (water needs, flood control, etc). Thirteen years after the establishment of the Program, Muth et al. (2000) identified a series of recommendations aimed at altering the flows out of Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Green River, Wyoming for the benefit of the native fish, while meeting the needs of the communities. The recommendations are intended to create variation both within years as well as between years to create physiographic and geologic changes in the http://wgu. mindedgeonline. com/content. php? cid=23905 4/12 3/7/2014 Western Governors University : RQBT5: Sample final paper #2 structure of the habitat present for the endangered species. In addition to the flow recommendations on the Green River provided by Muth et al. (2000), McAda (2003) provided flow recommendations on the Colorado and Gunnison rivers. Similar to those on the Green River, the recommendations were based upon water year. As with Muth, McAda (2003) identified the effects that these flow recommendations would have on the hydrology of the river and ultimately the habitat required by the endangered fishes at different life stages. Modde and Keleher (2003) proposed similar recommendations for the Duchesne River, a tributary to the Green River in Utah, although the Duchesne River flows are intended only to provide benefit for adult Colorado pikeminnow. Sampling has shown RECOVERY OF THE FOUR BIG-RIVER FISHES OF THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN 8 that the Duchesne River is primarily used by in the spring and summer months, particularly by Colorado pikeminnow for temperature preference and to escape the high flows of the Green River while foraging. The move by the Program to create and implement the series of flow recommendations on every major river within the basin illustrates the importance of the effort to the endangered fishes as well as the willingness of the participants within the Program to work towards the recovery of these fish species. Flow manipulation will also have effects on the activities to reduce negative interactions between the endangered fish and nonnative fish species. Nonnative Removal The second major endeavor of that must happen for the endangered fishes of the Colorado River basin to be delisted is to reduce if not eliminate negative interactions between the native fish and nonnative species that have been introduced into the basin (USFWS 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d; Lentsch, Muth, Thompson, Hoskins, Crowl,1996; Tyus Stauffer, 1996). Research suggests that native fish recovery in the Colorado River basin can be achieved by managing the interactions with nonnative fish. Currently nonnative species comprise the majority of the fish biomass in the basin. The impacts that these nonnative species have can be observed as competition for habitat and food as well as predation on all life stages of the endangered fishes (Lentsch et al. , 1996). Efforts to reduce the impacts of these species included restricting stocking of nonnative fish, screening outlets from recreational reservoirs, and attempts to physically remove the nonnative fish from the rivers (Nesler, 1996; Martinez, 2004; Fuller, 2009; Bestgen et al. , 2009; Trammell et al. , 2005). The nonnative fishes that have become established within the basin can typically be separated into two different groups, recreational sport fish and RECOVERY OF THE FOUR BIG-RIVER FISHES OF THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN 9 non-sport fish introductions. The sport fish introductions have historically and typically been made by official agencies responsible for creating recreational fishing opportunities. http://wgu. mindedgeonline. com/content. php? cid=23905 5/12 3/7/2014 Western Governors University : RQBT5: Sample final paper #2 Following the closure of Flaming Gorge Dam in 1969, these agencies poisoned the Green River below the dam to remove the native fishes to allow for the establishment of a tailwater trout fishery. Not only did this activity directly affect the populations of native species, but it also affected populations long term through predation and competition with the nonnative species introduced post-poisoning. Additional nonnative sport fish such as largemouth bass and green sunfish have been introduced to the many reservoirs and offstream ponds within the Colorado River basin. Many of these facilities, when full, will release water and nonnative species into the rivers where they interact with native fish. Controlling these introductions has become more of a focus of the Program over the years. In 1996 three state wildlife agencies (Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming) and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service completed a report (USFWS 1996) that outlined procedures for stocking nonnative fish species in the upper Colorado River basin. While these procedures did help to address some of the issues associated with nonnative fishes in the basin by restricting new species beyond what was already present, they did not address the escapement from reservoirs and ultimately establishment in the river. Martinez and Nibbelink (2004) were the first to evaluate the effects of the stocking plans, with specific emphasis within the State of Colorado. They determined that, unfortunately, the ability to track stocking events made it nearly impossible to determine exactly what effect the stocking regulations had on endangered fish recovery. Efforts in the interim have attempted to place nets or other screening mechanisms at outlets from reservoirs with varying results along the Colorado and Duchesne rivers (Martinez, 2004; RECOVERY OF THE FOUR BIG-RIVER FISHES OF THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN 10 USFWS, 2011). Martinez (2004) showed that in most cases (2 of 54 ponds) where largemouth bass were eliminated from a pond, they did not re-establish during the course of the study. However, they further determined that no evidence of their removal efforts could be observed in the river due to existing fish as well as the inability to effect removal on all ponds in the area. In the Duchesne River, a tributary to the Green River, a screen on Crystal Reservoir has prevented escapement of nonnative fishes (USFWS, 2011). In addition to managing the stocking and escapement of fish from reservoirs, the Program has placed significant time, effort and money into physically removing nonnative fishes from the river. Efforts to remove nonnative predatory fishes from the upper basin rivers have been varied from angling (Fuller, 2009) to electrofishing efforts (Hawkins, Walford, Hill, 2009). The efforts by Hawkins et al. (2009) to remove smallmouth bass from the Yampa River using electrofishing illustrated the benefit of removal activities. Hawkins et al. saw a decrease in smallmouth bass numbers that they attributed to their efforts, but in turn determined that immigration of fish into the area and reproduction likely reduced the overall effectiveness of the removal efforts. Fuller (2009) worked to remove nonnative channel catfish and smallmouth bass from the Yampa River through angling and electrofishing from 2001-2006. Angling efforts for channel catfish were discontinued after 2003 because smallmouth bass populations were increasing and electrofishing is much more effective in their capture and removal, a good http://wgu. mindedgeonline. com/content. php? cid=23905 6/12 3/7/2014 Western Governors University : RQBT5: Sample final paper #2 example of the ability of the research to adapt to management. Fuller (2009) indicated that despite removing 28,860 channel catfish and 8,243 smallmouth bass, the efforts were not going to achieve the goal of reducing these species RECOVERY OF THE FOUR BIG-RIVER FISHES OF THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN 11 populations to a point that they would not impact native fish recovery. However, while not reaching the goal, the efforts were trending in the proper direction, but would require more effort to achieve exploitation of the populations. Bestgen et al. (2009) provided an accompanying analysis of Fuller evaluating the native fish response to nonnative fish removal. These researchers determined that native fish populations did not respond to the removal of nonnative fish for a few different reasons. Bestgen et al. (2009) hypothesized that native fish numbers did not increase due to an insufficient number of nonnative fish being removed, changes in streamflows and water temperatures changed as a result of drought to conditions favoring the predatory fishes, and there may have been a lack of reproductively viable native fishes to respond to the decreased nonnative populations. Ultimately they determined that additional efforts in both fish removal and monitoring of native fish response will be necessary. While Fuller (2009) and Martinez (2004) were removing sport fish, Trammell et al. (2005) detailed the efforts over three years to remove the small-bodied nonnative minnows (red shiner, fathead minnow, and sand shiner) from the Green and Colorado rivers as part of one of these studies. While these species are ultimately much smaller than the natives, adults are present in nursery habitats and prey upon native fish larvae (young fish) as they drift into the nursery habitats. Nonnative fish in these areas outnumber natives sometimes thousands to one. Removal efforts were conducted through seining (pulling a net through the water) in backwater habitats where these species were predominant. The researchers found that while hundreds of thousands of these fish were removed, no reach scale benefits were found for native fish (Trammell et al. 2005). However, one of the beneficial items from this research is that it could be RECOVERY OF THE FOUR BIG-RIVER FISHES OF THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN 12 possible to remove nonnatives just prior to the arrival of drifting native larvae. This information coupled with the effects of temperatures on growth identified by Bestgen (2008), could allow native larvae to reach sizes where they will be safe from predation and thus survive at higher rates. In other areas of the basin, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources (2010) biologists, found the highest numbers of young Colorado pikeminnow since 1991, likely a result of nonnative removal efforts. The ability of all life stages of native fishes to survive encounters with nonnative species will be important to overall survival, but also important to how stocking of hatchery-reared fish is managed. Stocking of Hatchery Reared Fish http://wgu. mindedgeonline. com/content. php? cid=23905 7/12 3/7/2014 Western Governors University : RQBT5: Sample final paper #2 Research suggests that unless hatchery-reared fish are stocked into the river the endangered fishes of the upper Colorado River basin will not be recovered. Stocking of fish to enhance low population numbers has been occurring for endangered species recovery efforts for many years. Due to the long life spans of the endangered Colorado River fishes along with the fact that they do not reach reproductive maturity for a number of years, stocking has been important to initially stabilize populations and then to augment the wild populations. Currently the Program has propagation capabilities at four different facilities (Dexter National Fish Hatchery and Technology Center, 24 Road Hatchery, Wahweap State Fish Hatchery, and the John W. Mumma Fish Hatchery). These facilities provide thousands of individual fish to Program managers to enhance existing populations. In 2003, Nesler et al. compared the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming state stocking plans for the four big river fishes of the Colorado River basin. During that evaluation, they determined that the state plans were inconsistent with regards to numbers to stock, age of adult fish, numbers of adult age classes, and number of years to stock. RECOVERY OF THE FOUR BIG-RIVER FISHES OF THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN 13 To solve these issues, the Program decided to integrate all of the stocking plans into one single plan. The final numbers identified in the integrated plan were designed to meet the goals of the individual species recovery plans (USFWS 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d). While hatcheries can consistently provide fish for stocking into the rivers, stocking will be most effective with continued evaluation of successes. As biologists monitor the status of populations, they will in turn discuss with hatcheries and others to determine the best uses of each years output of fish. Hatcheries each year attempt to produce enough fish to meet the stocking goals. Often, the monitoring efforts must not only look at simple hatchery production, but how that production is surviving in the river. The recovery goals for razorback sucker require that two separate populations represented by 5,800 individuals each will be necessary for downlisting or delisting to occur. Zelasko, Bestgen, White, (2010) evaluated the effectiveness of the stocking plan for razorback sucker. The authors determined that stocking success was increased by not stocking razorback sucker during the summer. They also determined that stocking larger fish into the river enhanced survival but recommended that a cost benefit analysis be conducted to determine if producing fewer larger fish is more expensive than producing more, smaller fish for introduction. A few excellent examples of stocking success have been found in the White River (Loomis, 2011) and also in the San Juan River. In the White River, razorback sucker larvae from previously stocked fish have been found in the river for the first time. In the San Juan River, stocking of both Colorado pikeminnow and razorback sucker have been successful enough that both species have reproduced and now there are http://wgu. mindedgeonline. com/content. php? cid=23905 8/12 3/7/2014 Western Governors University : RQBT5: Sample final paper #2 RECOVERY OF THE FOUR BIG-RIVER FISHES OF THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN 14 growing populations. Ultimately, continually refining the production from hatcheries has the best potential to significantly help in the recovery process. Conclusion In conclusion, since the western United States was settled, mankinds dependence on the Colorado River increased steadily. Water for agriculture, culinary, and municipal uses were removed from the river. In order for these needs to be fulfilled, large dams were constructed on the river, thereby altering the hydrologic characteristics of the river basin and impacting the native fishes that adapted to the extreme conditions of the basin. The regulation of the river created changes that reduced the high spring flows, lowered water temperatures, and created barriers to spawning migrations of the endangered fishes. The effects of these changes on the native fish were staggering. Nonnative fish were stocked into newly created reservoirs, where they escaped and were able to establish and thrive in the newly regulated river system. The flows released from reservoirs, cold and clear result in lower growth rates for native fish that make them more susceptible to predation by the nonnative fish, ultimately placing them in danger of extinction. These issues have pushed the four big river fishes of the Colorado River to the brink of extinction, requiring human intervention to insure that that extinction does not occur. The effort to recover the endangered fishes of the upper Colorado River basin has been led by the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program (Program). Research conducted as part of the Program has shown that by focusing on the manipulation of flows from reservoirs, controlling nonnative fishes, and stocking of hatchery-reared native fishes will allow the fishes of the Colorado River to be de-listed RECOVERY OF THE FOUR BIG-RIVER FISHES OF THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN 15 (recovered). The manipulation of flows from dams will reverse some of the hydrologic impacts, re-creating portions the historic extremes of flow found in the basin, and enhance conditions that will likely favor the native fish more than the altered conditions. The establishment of nonnative fish throughout the Colorado River basin likely represents the largest threat to the endangered fishes. A diverse suite of nonnative fish, compete with and prey upon the native fish, reducing their ability to thrive. Efforts to control these fish, include management of future introductions, attempts to restrict escapement from reservoirs, and physical removal of these species. These efforts are yielding positive results, but gains are measured in small steps and require constant adaptive management. The use of hatcheries to provide large numbers of endangered fish is a time-tested means of stabilizing and increasing populations of fish. Stocking of the endangered fishes into the Colorado River basin has been ongoing for a number of years and fish stocked are now beginning to return and spawn, creating wild fish that will continue to enhance population numbers. All of these efforts must occur for these fishes to be de-listed. Currently, gains in the native populations are moving slowly towards downlisting and delisting as a result of the focused efforts to address flow manipulation, nonnative species control and stocking of hatchery-reared fishes. http://wgu. mindedgeonline. com/content. php? cid=23905 9/12 3/7/2014 Western Governors University : RQBT5: Sample final paper #2 RECOVERY OF THE FOUR BIG-RIVER FISHES OF THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN 16 References Bestgen, K. (2008). Effects of water temperature on growth of razorback sucker larvae. Western North American Naturalist 68 (1), 15–20. Bestgen, K. , Walford, C. , Hill, A. , Hawkins, J. (2009). Native fish response to removal of non-native predator fish in the Yampa River, Colorado. Final Report of the Larval Fish Laboratory to the Colorado River Recovery Implementation Program, Project number 115. Ft. Collins, Colorado. Carlson, C. , Muth R. (1989). The Colorado River: lifeline of the American southwest. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (106:220–239). Carlson, C. , Muth R. (1993). Endangered species management. In C. Kohler and W. Hubert (Eds. ). Inland fisheries management in North America (pp. 355–381). American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. Fuller, M. (2009). Lower Yampa River channel catfish and smallmouth bass control program, Colorado, (2001-2006). Final Report of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service to the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program, Vernal, Utah. Hawkins, J. , Walford, C. , Hill, A. (2009). Smallmouth bass control in the middle Yampa River, 2003–2007. Final report, Larval Fish Laboratory Contribution 154, Colorado State University, Fort Collins to Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver, Colorado. RECOVERY OF THE FOUR BIG-RIVER FISHES OF THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN 17 Lentsch, L. , Muth, R. , Thompson, P. , Hoskins, B. , and Crowl, T. (1996). Options for selective control of nonnative fishes in the upper Colorado River basin. Final Report. Utah Division of Wildlife Resources. Loomis, B. (2011). Biologists find young endangered fish in Utah river. Salt Lake Tribune, July 6, 2011. Martinez, A. (2004). An evaluation of nonnative fish control treatments in ponds along the Colorado and Gunnison rivers, 1996-2002. Final Report of the Colorado Division of Wildlife to the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program, Grand Junction, Colorado. Martinez, P. , Nibbelink N. (2004). Colorado nonnative fish stocking regulation evaluation. Final report of Colorado Division of Wildlife and Wyoming Geographic Information Science Center to the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program, Denver, Colorado. http://wgu. mindedgeonline. com/content. php? cid=23905 10/12 3/7/2014 Western Governors University : RQBT5: Sample final paper #2 McAda, C. (2003). Flow recommendations to benefit endangered fishes in the Colorado and Gunnison rivers. Final Report of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service to the Upper Colorado River Recovery Implementation Program, Project Number 54, Grand Junction, Colorado. Modde, T. Keleher, C. (2003). Flow recommendations for the Duchesne River with a synopsis of information regarding endangered fish. Draft Final Report Submitted to the Upper Colorado River basin Endangered Fishes Recovery Implementation Program Project No. 84-1, Vernal, Utah. Muth, R. , Crist, L. , LaGory, K. , Hayse, J. , Bestgen, K. , Ryan, T. , Lyons, J. (2000). Flow and temperature recommendations for endangered fishes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam. Project FG-53, Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program, Lakewood, Colorado. RECOVERY OF THE FOUR BIG-RIVER FISHES OF THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN 18 Nesler, T. , Christopherson, K. , Hudson, J. , McAda, C. , Pfeifer, F. , Czapla, T. (2003). An integrated stocking plan for razorback sucker, bonytail, and Colorado pikeminnow for the upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program. Final report of the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program, Denver, Colorado. Ono, R. , Williams, J. , Wagner, A. (1983). Vanishing Fishes of North America. Stone Wall Press, Washington D. C. Quartarone, F. (1995). Historical accounts of upper Colorado River basin endangered fishes. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver. Trammell, M. , Meismer, S. , Speas, D. (2005). Nonnative cyprinid removal in the lower Green and Colorado rivers, Utah, UDWR publication (05–10), Salt Lake City, Utah. Tyus, H. , Saunders, F. (1996). Nonnative fishes in the upper Colorado River basin and a strategic plan for their control. Final report. Colorado

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Focused Preschool Observation Essays - Child Development, Learning

Focused Preschool Observation Essays - Child Development, Learning Focused Preschool Observation Part 1 Child A lives with both her dad and mom. She is an only child. She has blonde hair and blue eyes. She is very energetic and happy. She is three years old and will be four in October. She does very well in her classroom and seems to mind her teachers for the most part. She carries around one of her moms night gowns for comfort. She eats very well. She ate most of the food on her plate and kept to herself while she was eating. She loves to read to her class and interact with her friends. Part 2 I observed at Parkway Child Care in Sevierville. The daycare is fairly big. There are two teachers present. The main teacher and the assistant teacher are both present. They were great with the children. You could tell they were very patient, passionate, and understanding with the children. They helped aid in the childrens education as well as showing love and nurture. When I walked in the children were sitting in front of the television watching a movie and eating popcorn. It was on a Friday so the children were very anxious and hyper. When their movie went off they went to the gym and played with all of the toys in the gym and ran around. After they played in the gym they went to the bathroom and washed their hands for lunch. Next they went to the lunch room and ate chicken and rice, carrots, and pineapples. Finally they went on back to their classroom to get ready for nap. They read books while their teachers got all of their mats together and laid down and read before nap. The cl assroom was average size with many toys that promote the three domains of development. Part 3 Focused Preschooler Observation Observers Name: Kayla Cardwell Date(s) of Observation: 04-10-15 Name, gender and exact age of Infant: Sydney, Female, 3 years and 6 months Time observation(s) began: 10:30 Time observation(s) ended: 1:30 Setting: Include the following questions/answers in the focused observation report. Attach this sheet and any other notes to the observation. a.1.Describe the gross and fine motor development of the preschooler. What was the preschooler doing to demonstrate this development? What did the teacher do to stimulate movement? The child rolled, threw, and caught a ball. The teacher played with the ball with the child. a.2.Describe the symbolic play (pretend play) in which the child engaged. What objects were used? Were other children involved? The child used her stuffed mouse and used pretend play with the mouse. No other children were involved. a.3.Describe if this child chose to play with same sex children, opposite sex children, or both sexes equally. Did the preschool child engage in non-stereotyped play? Describe completely. The child played with both sexes easily. The child did not seem to mind who she played with. a.4.What behaviors did the preschooler show that demonstrated growing mental (cognitive) development? What did the teacher do to stimulate these behaviors? The child found her paper shoe attached to the floor with her name on it when it was time to exit the classroom. The teacher encouraged the children to find the right shoe. a.5.Describe any teacher actions that support language and literacy development. The teacher pointed out certain things on the movie they were watching and encouraged the children to say what they saw. a.6.What behaviors did the child exhibit that showed their developmental level according to Eriksons stages of development? How did the child show initiative? The child got along with friends and teachers, loves make-believe play, used motor skills, and very ambitious. The child shows initiative by wanting to try new things and activities. Developmental Milestones Checklist Preschool: Three Years Dates of Observation: Age(in years and months): List one example for items checked Yes or Emerging. Physical/Motor Development TaskYesNoEmergingExample Swings arms when walkingX Jumps with both feetX Rides three-wheeled toysX Walks on a balance beam or line (wide low beam or curved or straight line on the floor)XPlastic balance beam in gym Balances or hops on one foot brieflyX Climbs a small slide and slides down without assistanceXClimbs up hill outside then goes down slide Throws a ball or other object overhandX Bounces a ball and catches itX Runs consistently without fallingX Builds and stacks with several small blocks XMostly with legos Pounds pegs with mallet Copies and draws simple shapesX Practices zipping, snapping, fastening, and

Friday, February 21, 2020

Quorum sensing in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium Essay

Quorum sensing in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium - Essay Example The influence of environmental factors on quorum sensing as seen by the influence of glucose metabolism on the production and degradation of the signal shows that through quorum sensing the cells communicate their growth phase as well as the metabolic potential of their environment. Strain AB 1157 of E. coli and strain LT2 of S. typhimurium grown in 0.5% glucose containing LB broth for the assay was removed from the medium and checked for activity that resulted in expression of luminescence in V. harveyi. 10% cell-free culture fluids from the two strains demonstrated maximal induction of luminescence in the V. Harveyi reporter strain BB170 which has the phenotype for quorum sensing, sensor 1-, sensor 2+ which induces luminescence exclusively through the signaling system 2 detector. The response was similar to that from V. harveyi BB152 culture fluid with E. Coli showing 106% and S. typhimurium showing 237% activity of the control activity. The signaling factor was not produced and the luminescence expression not induced when the bacterial strains were cultured in LB broth without added glucose and substitution of 10% LB medium containing glucose respectively. Candidates for signal including glucose, cAMP, amino acids, acetate, ÃŽ ±-ketogluterate, homoserine lac tone and other keto acids also produced no activity suggesting V. Harveyi BB170 respond to some signaling substance secreted by E. coli AB1157 and S. typhimurium LT2 grown on glucose containing LB medium. An analogous experiment performed with V. Harveyi reporter strain BB886 (sensor 1+ , sensor 2-) which is a wild type strain that do not act in response to signaling molecules that function through the signaling system 2 detector. Addition of E. coli AB1157 and S. typhimurium LT2 cell-free culture fluids showed only a respective 1% and 5% increase above control level (control used V. harveyi BB120 spent cultures which produces system 1 autoinducer).These results shows that E. coli AB1157 and